Introduction ::Suriname


First explored by the Spaniards in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century, Suriname became a Dutch colony in 1667. With the abolition of African slavery in 1863, workers were brought in from India and Java. Independence from the Netherlands was granted in 1975. Five years later the civilian government was replaced by a military regime that soon declared a socialist republic. It continued to exert control through a succession of nominally civilian administrations until 1987, when international pressure finally forced a democratic election. In 1990, the military overthrew the civilian leadership, but a democratically elected government - a four-party coalition - returned to power in 1991. The coalition expanded to eight parties in 2005 and ruled until August 2010, when voters returned former military leader Desire BOUTERSE and his opposition coalition to power.

Geography ::Suriname


Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana

Geographic coordinates:

4 00 N, 56 00 W


total: 163,820 sq km

country comparison to the world: 92

land: 156,000 sq km

water: 7,820 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:

total: 1,703 km

border countries: Brazil 593 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km


386 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; moderated by trade winds


mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m

highest point: Juliana Top 1,230 m

Natural resources:

timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore

Land use:

arable land: 0.36%

permanent crops: 0.04%

other: 99.6% (2011)

Irrigated land:

511.8 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

122 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.67 cu km/yr (6%/4%/90%)

per capita: 1,396 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

deforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast

People and Society ::Suriname


noun: Surinamer(s)

adjective: Surinamese

Ethnic groups:

Hindustani (also known locally as ""East Indians""; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15%, ""Maroons"" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 10%, Amerindian 2%, Chinese 2%, white 1%, other 2%


Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese


Hindu 27.4%, Protestant 25.2% (predominantly Moravian), Roman Catholic 22.8%, Muslim 19.6%, indigenous beliefs 5%

Demographic profile:

Suriname is a pluralistic society consisting primarily of Creoles (persons of mixed African and European heritage), the descendants of escaped African slaves known as Maroons, and the descendants of Indian and Javanese contract workers. The country overall is in full, post-industrial demographic transition, with a low fertility rate, a moderate mortality rate, and a rising life expectancy. However, the Maroon population of the rural interior lags behind because of lower educational attainment and contraceptive use, higher malnutrition, and significantly less access to electricity, potable water, sanitation, infrastructure, and health care.

Some 350,000 people of Surinamese descent live in the Netherlands, Suriname's former colonial ruler. In the 19th century, better-educated, largely Dutch-speaking Surinamese began emigrating to the Netherlands. World War II interrupted the outflow, but it resumed after the war when Dutch labor demands grew - emigrants included all segments of the Creole population. Suriname still is strongly influenced by the Netherlands because most Surinamese have relatives living there and it is the largest supplier of development aid. Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. Suriname's immigration rules are flexible, and the country is easy to enter illegally because rainforests obscure its borders. Since the mid-1980s, Brazilians have settled in Suriname's capital, Paramaribo, or eastern Suriname, where they mine gold. This immigration is likely to slowly re-orient Suriname toward its Latin American roots.


566,846 (July 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Age structure:

0-14 years: 26.8% (male 77,404/female 74,477)

15-24 years: 17.5% (male 50,745/female 48,718)

25-54 years: 43.8% (male 126,399/female 121,930)

55-64 years: 6.2% (male 17,123/female 18,246)

65 years and over: 5.6% (male 13,770/female 18,034) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 51.6 %

youth dependency ratio: 41.5 %

elderly dependency ratio: 10.1 %

potential support ratio: 9.9 (2013)

Median age:

total: 28.2 years

male: 27.8 years

female: 28.5 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.15% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Birth rate:

17.1 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Death rate:

6.15 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Net migration rate:

0.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65


urban population: 69% of total population (2010)

rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

PARAMARIBO (capital) 259,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

130 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

country comparison to the world: 64

Infant mortality rate:

total: 27.99 deaths/1,000 live births

country comparison to the world: 69

male: 32.54 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 71.41 years

country comparison to the world: 145

male: 69.05 years

female: 73.88 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.04 children born/woman (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

45.6% (2006)

Health expenditures:

7% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 82

Physicians density:

0.45 physicians/1,000 population (2000)

Hospital bed density:

2.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:


urban: 97% of population

rural: 81% of population

total: 92% of population


urban: 3% of population

rural: 19% of population

total: 8% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:


urban: 90% of population

rural: 66% of population

total: 83% of population


urban: 10% of population

rural: 34% of population

total: 17% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

3,700 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 200 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

25.1% (2008)

country comparison to the world: 60

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

7.5% (2006)

country comparison to the world: 74

Education expenditures:



definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.7%

male: 95.4%

female: 94% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years (2002)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 6,094

percentage: 6 % (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 21.5% (2004)

country comparison to the world: 53

Government ::Suriname

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Suriname

conventional short form: Suriname

local long form: Republiek Suriname

local short form: Suriname

former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

Government type:

constitutional democracy


name: Paramaribo

geographic coordinates: 5 50 N, 55 10 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica


25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 25 November (1975)


ratified 30 September 1987; effective 30 October 1987

Legal system:

civil law system influenced by Dutch civil law; note - the Commissie Nieuw Surinaamse Burgerlijk Wetboek completed drafting a new civil code in February 2009

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Robert AMEERALI (since 12 August 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Robert AMEERALI (since 12 August 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

(For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate receives a two-thirds constitutional majority in the National Assembly after two votes, by a simple majority in the larger United People's Assembly (893 representatives from the national, local, and regional councils), for five-year terms (no term limits); election last held on 19 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015)

election results: Desire Delano BOUTERSE elected president; percent of vote - Desire Delano BOUTERSE 70.6%, Chandrikapersad SATOKHI 25.5%, other 3.9%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly or Nationale Assemblee (51 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - Mega Combination 45.1%, New Front 27.5%, A-Com 13.7%, People's Alliance 11.8%, DOE 1.9%; seats by party - Mega Combination 23, New Front 14, A-Com 7, People's Alliance 6, DOE 1

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): High Court of Justice of Suriname (consists of the court president, vice president, and 4 judges)

note - Suriname can appeal beyond its High Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the High Court; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: cantonal courts

Political parties and leaders:

A-Combination (a coalition that includes the General Liberation and Development Party ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK], and SEEKA [Paul ABENA])

Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy or BVD [Dilip SARDJOE]

Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy or PVF [Soedeschand JAIRAM]

Democratic Union Suriname or DUS [Japhet DIEKO]

Mega Combination Coalition (a coalition that joined with A-Combination and the PL to form a majority in Parliament in 2010 - includes the National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE] (largest party in the coalition), Progressive Worker and Farmer's Union or PALU [Jim HOK], Party for National Unity and Solidarity of the Highest Order or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA], DNP-2000 [Jules WIJDENBOSCH], Union of Brotherhood and Unity in Politics BEP [Caprino ALENDY], and New Suriname or NS [Nanan PANDAY])

National Union or NU [P. VAN LEEUWAARDE]

New Front for Democracy and Development or NF (a coalition made up of the National Party of Suriname or NPS [Runaldo VENETIAAN], United Reform Party or VHP [Ramdien SARDJOE], Democratic Alternative 1991 or DA-91 - an independent, business-oriented party [Winston JESSURUN], Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Siegfried GILDS])

Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD]

Party for the Permanent Prosperity Republic Suriname or PVRS

People's Alliance, Pertjaja Luhur's or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO](includes D-21 [Soewarta MOESTADJA] and Pendawa Lima [Raymond SAPEON], which merged with PL in 2010)

note: BVD and PVF participated in the elections as a coalition (BVD/PVF) in the most recent elections, but separated after the election

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]

Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]

Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Subhas-Chandra MUNGRA

chancery: Suite 460, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878

consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Jay N. ANANIA

embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo

mailing address: US Department of State, PO Box 1821, Paramaribo

telephone: [597] 472-900

FAX: [597] 410-972

Flag description:

five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); a large, yellow, five-pointed star is centered in the red band; red stands for progress and love; green symbolizes hope and fertility; white signifies peace, justice, and freedom; the star represents the unity of all ethnic groups; from its yellow light the nation draws strength to bear sacrifices patiently while working toward a golden future

National anthem:

name: ""God zij met ons Suriname!"" (God Be With Our Suriname)

lyrics/music: Cornelis Atses HOEKSTRA and Henry DE ZIEL/Johannes Corstianus DE PUY

note: adopted 1959; the anthem, originally adapted from a Sunday school song written in 1893, contains lyrics in both Dutch and Sranang Tongo

Economy ::Suriname

Economy - overview:

The economy is dominated by the mining industry, with exports of alumina, gold, and oil accounting for about 85% of exports and 25% of government revenues, making the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility. Economic growth, which reached about 7% in 2008, owing to sizeable foreign investment in mining and oil, slowed to 2.2% in 2009 as investment waned and the country earned less from its commodity exports when global prices for most commodities fell. Trade picked up, boosting Suriname's economic growth about 4% per year in 2010-12, but the government's budget remained strained. Inflation rose from 1.3% in 2009 to 17.7% in 2011. In January 2011, the government devalued the currency by 20% and raised taxes to reduce the budget deficit. As a result of these measures, inflation receded to 6% in 2012. Suriname''s economic prospects for the medium term will depend on continued commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and to the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$6.874 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

$6.58 billion (2011 est.)

$6.285 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$4.738 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

4.5% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72

4.7% (2011 est.)

4.1% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$12,600 (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

$12,200 (2011 est.)

$11,800 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 81%

government consumption: 18.4%

investment in fixed capital: 19.7%

investment in inventories: -19.8%

exports of goods and services: 53.9%

imports of goods and services: -53.2%

(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 10.6%

industry: 38.3%

services: 51.2% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:

rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts; beef, chickens; shrimp; forest products


bauxite and gold mining, alumina production; oil, lumbering, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:

5% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Labor force:

165,600 (2007)

country comparison to the world: 176

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 8%

industry: 14%

services: 78% (2004)

Unemployment rate:

9% (2008)

country comparison to the world: 103

12.1% (2006)

Population below poverty line:

70% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $826.6 million

expenditures: $939.7 million (2010 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

17.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-2.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

5% (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

17.7% (2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

11.7% (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

11.75% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$1.132 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

$1.075 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:

$2.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

$2.033 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$1.364 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

$1.026 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:


Current account balance:

$577.2 million (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

$251.1 million (2011 est.)


$2.563 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

$2.467 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:

alumina, gold, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas

Exports - partners:

US 26.1%, Belgium 17.6%, UAE 12.1%, Canada 10.4%, Guyana 6.5%, France 5.6%, Barbados 4.7% (2012)


$1.782 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

$1.679 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:

capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods

Imports - partners:

US 25.8%, Netherlands 15.8%, China 9.8%, UAE 7.9%, Antigua and Barbuda 7.3%, Netherlands Antilles 5.4%, Japan 4.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$1.008 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

$816.9 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:

$905 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

$869 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:

Surinamese dollars (SRD) per US dollar -

3.3 (2012 est.)

3.2683 (2011 est.)

2.7454 (2010 est.)

2.745 (2009)

2.745 (2008)

Energy ::Suriname

Electricity - production:

1.603 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 140

Electricity - consumption:

1.463 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

389,000 kW (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

51.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

48.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Crude oil - production:

16,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Crude oil - proved reserves:

72 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78

Refined petroleum products - production:

7,407 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

14,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Refined petroleum products - exports:

1,058 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Refined petroleum products - imports:

6,430 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 182

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 179

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

2.343 million Mt (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Communications ::Suriname

Telephones - main lines in use:

85,500 (2011)

country comparison to the world: 150

Telephones - mobile cellular:

947,000 (2011)

country comparison to the world: 156

Telephone system:

general assessment: international facilities are good

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 185 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network

international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media:

2 state-owned TV stations; 1 state-owned radio station; multiple private radio and TV stations (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

188 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 201

Internet users:

163,000 (2009)

country comparison to the world: 146

Transportation ::Suriname


55 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 85

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 49

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m:

45 (2013)


oil 50 km (2013)


total: 4,304 km

country comparison to the world: 154

paved: 1,130 km

unpaved: 3,174 km (2003)


1,200 km (most navigable by ships with drafts up to 7 m) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 61

Ports and terminals:

Paramaribo, Wageningen

Military ::Suriname

Military branches:

Suriname Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; personnel drawn almost exclusively from the Creole community (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 134,218

females age 16-49: 134,439 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 109,445

females age 16-49: 112,538 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 4,119

female: 4,106 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.2% of GDP (2011)

country comparison to the world: 117

Transnational Issues ::Suriname

Disputes - international:

area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Suriname is a source, destination, and transit country for women, men, and children who are subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; women and girls from Suriname, Guyana, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic are subjected to sex trafficking in the country, sometimes around mining camps; debt bondage and sex trafficking are reported to occur within the Chinese migrant community; migrant workers in agriculture and on fishing boats and children working in informal urban sectors and gold mines are vulnerable to forced labor

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Suriname does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has prosecuted an increased number of sex trafficking cases and identified an increased number of child sex trafficking victims; accountability for trafficking offenses continues to be a problem as no offenders have been convicted and the complicity of local officials remains a concern; authorities do not have a formal system for referring victims to NGOs that provide services but reported doing so on an ad hoc basis; the government's interagency anti-trafficking working group drafted an anti-trafficking policy in 2012 (2013)

Illicit drugs:

growing transshipment point for South American drugs destined for Europe via the Netherlands and Brazil; transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing"

The World Factbook. 2014.

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